Legal Issues Faced By E-Commerce Businesses

Legal Issues Faced By E-Commerce Businesses


With the advanced and increased use of online media, online business is becoming a fast emerging trend. Every five in eight companies are operating online, conducting E-Commerce business. But being functional online doesn’t mean you can escape legal matters. E-Commerce is understood to mean the production, distribution, marketing, sale or delivery of goods and services by electronic means. Over the past few years, global trade has expanded due to the explosive growth of electronic commerce.

There are various legal issues associated with E-Commerce businesses. If these issues are not taken care of in time, they can lead to serious problems for a business. Described below are some of the common legal issues an E-Commerce business faces.

Incorporation Problem

If the company has operated merely via a website, not being incorporated is a crucial problem. Any purchase and selling activity related to the products will be considered illegal and you can’t claim your right in case of any fraud and corruption. Without incorporation, the business has no shelter.

Trademark Security Problem

Not getting trademark protected is one of the main legal issues in the field of E-Commerce. Since trademark is the company’s logo and symbol, the representation of  business all over the web, it must be protected. If it is not secure , it won’t take long before you realize your trademark is being infringed upon. This is very common legal issue and can become a deadly threat to  e-business.

With the hackers on loose and cybercrime so common, trademark infringement of the business or by your business can be a serious legal matter and may hinder the business’s progress.

Copyright Protection Issue

While publishing content for  E-Commerce website, using content of any other company can be a severe legal problem. This might mark an end to your e-business. There are many sites online which are royalty free and allow you to access their content and images. You may use those sites for creating web content for your business site. Even if you unintentionally used copyrighted content, the other party can easily sue your business.

Transaction Issues

If we do not abide by the rules, we can get into serious law violation problems. If the business fails to provide clear and complete description of the product, cost and purchase details, information about delivery i.e. when the customer will receive products and other information related to exchange and refunds,  Consumer Law can impose penalties on the business.

Privacy Issues

When it comes to online businesses, privacy is the major issue that can create problems both for the business and customers. Consumers share information with businesses online and they expect the sellers to keep their information confidential. By just one minor mistake and leakage of valuable information of a customer, we will not only lose our potential customer but the image and reputation will become a question mark.


The bursting of the dotcom bubble has made several companies realise that doing business on the Internet is not as easy as it sounds. Undoubtedly, the power of the Internet to reach any part of the world holds tremendous potential for enhancing international trade and boosting global economy. However, just as every coin has a flip side, we have seen that doing business on the Internet also has risks and legal issues associated with it. The rapid pace of E-Commerce development has generally left the legal system struggling to keep up. In much the same way as companies doing E-Commerce must invent new business procedures and rules, the legal system is trying to adapt existing laws to fit new settings where it is simply unclear how these laws will apply. In the midst of this legal confusion, India is one of the few countries across the globe that has enacted an E-Commerce legislation. However, much more is needed to effectively regulate the tangled web.

Study in Regional language & Problems Faced by Students In Higher Education

Study in Regional language & Problems Faced by Students In Higher Education

Higher education sector, in recent decades, has witnessed a tremendous growth in many aspects such as its institutional capacity, enrolment, teacher-student ratio, etc. The rapid expansion of the higher education system at the same time has brought several pertinent issue related to equity, efficiency, excellence and access to higher education in the country. But one of the leading problems of the higher education world is the students who complete their basic education in regional language face tremendous s problem to obtain their basic degree in English.It is frequently observed these students get demotivated due to this language barrier as they are unable to cope up with the core study language of higher education as they do not clearly get what is been thought in the lectures. My Article will cover some remedies for major challenges and problems faced by students regarding studying issues, understanding concepts dealing with new languages and the demoralization of students due inadequate knowledge of the core learning language in India i.e. English. It has been the need of time to learn English as to be presentable in this world one has to have a good command over English but if he or she has studied in regional language he will face many difficulties to understand all things in English in higher education.

Remedies or Suggestions

Dilution of lectures: The faculty should try to dilute the lecture into the core language and the regional language not fully but at least partially or at least key words.

Understand the student’s mentality: Many a times the student do not connect to you because either he feels difficult to understand the language or he is not familiar to the other language apart from his regular regional language.

Need of other languages: The need of any things drives the persons to learn new things so make the student’s understand the need of the learning language (English) they will automatically understand the importance of it.

Extra Devotion: The students who are weak in new language or are from vernacular medium should be made to work hard as they need to cop up with the new language apart from regional language.

Job Orientation: Need based job-oriented courses should be provided in colleges and universities that would fulfill the skill-based educational needs of the society.

Remedial lectures: Special remedial lectures shall be provided for weak should as if they need to pass some extra efforts or extra lectures are needed.


  1. Use of regional language should allow as a part of understanding of the students not for entire lecture.
  2. Lecture system should be made much more subject related and live rather than text book stuffs apart from teaching.
  3. Fun games: One can try to create knowledge in minds of student as it is you have lecture you would have be able to learn fun games which can help to bridge the gap between regional and learning language.
  4. If some students laugh at any person for spellings one should tell the other person that he has studied in regional languages so is weak in language of learning.
  5. Counseling should be done of all the students who face such problem due to which demoralization of students can be stopped.
  6. Many times the person understands what we say in English but is not able to speak in that language at that time one should help the students to gain confidence.
The Importance of Copyrights, Patents and Trademarks in Business

The Importance of Copyrights, Patents and Trademarks in Business


As a business owner/entrepreneur we should care about intellectual property because it’s one of the most important business assets that we will ever own. Intellectual property, often referred to as IP, is a legal term covering various forms of valuable business assets. The three primary areas of IP are trademarks, copyrights and patents. IP is often misunderstood and confused. To most people and businesses, everything seems to be a copyright, when it may actually be a trademark that applies or vice versa. To protect IP, you need to know what it is – identifying what type of IP we’re talking about is often times the most difficult thing to do.


Trademark is essentially another word for brand or brand name. A trademark can be any name, word, symbol, slogan, or device that serves to both identify and distinguish a business or product from others in the market. Once you have trademarked your business, if someone else makes an attempt to use something similar enough to confuse customers, you have the right to legally protect yourself and stop the other party. Trademarks are also essential to the success of franchised businesses such as McDonald’s and Subway.

Example: Nike’s famous “swoosh” logo and even the Nike slogan “Do It

Importance of trademark

As a trademark owner, you can stop others, including competitors, from using your trademark or a confusingly similar one, many banks will not allow you to open a business account under your business name if it is not trademarked. Trademarking also gives you legal ownership in specific locations, be they local, state, or nationwide. To maintain a good reputation, trademarked companies will often work harder to provide quality services and products. Trademarks are also used as a way of protecting consumers

Trademarks provide protection for both businesses and consumers, making them an important part of running a successful company. Therefore, it is good practice for all business owners to take sufficient action to protect and enforce valuable trademarks.


A patent is important because it can help safeguard your invention. It can protect any product, design or process that meets certain specifications according to its originality, practicality, suitability, and utility. In most cases, a patent can protect an invention for up to 20 years

A patent provides a right to an inventor(s) to exclude others from exploiting the patented invention. Therefore, other than the inventor cannot use, make or sell the patented invention without permission from the inventor. This is often referred to as the exclusive right of the invention. The inventor can capitalize on this exclusive right and make his patent commercially viable

Importance of patents

Patents provide exclusive rights which allow the inventor to exclude others from using the invention. Particularly, for 20 years from the date of filing the patent application. The inventor has obtained the exclusive right to the invention, the inventor can exercise this right by preventing others from commercially using the patented invention thereby reducing the competition and thus establishing a place in the commercial market. Having invested a considerable amount of time and money in developing the invention, under the umbrella of exclusive rights, the inventor could bring in the invention to the commercial market and thus obtain higher returns on the investment and this depends on the economic utility of the patent. For this reason, the inventor must ensure the commercial viability of the patent before investing in a patent. Sometimes, the inventor might not want to exploit the invention himself. In such cases, the inventor can sell or license the rights to commercialize it to another enterprise. This would result to bring royalty and revenue to the inventor.



Copyright is a form of protection provided to the creators of “original works of authorship” including literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works. Copyright law generally provides the copyright owner with the exclusive right to use and reproduce the copyrighted work, to prepare derivative works, to distribute copies of the copyrighted work, to perform the copyrighted work publicly, and to display the copyrighted work publicly for a very long time

Importance of copyrights

A copyright protects the form of expression (e.g., the writing itself) rather than the subject matter of the writing (such as an invention, which a patent can protect) or the brand name or logo contained in the creative work (which trademark law can protect).

As a copyright owner, you can control how your work is reproduced, distributed and presented publicly. We can stop others (including competitors) from using your copyrighted works or works that are substantially similar to yours.


Therefore the main purpose of intellectual property law is to encourage the creation of a wide variety of intellectual goods. To achieve this, the law gives people and businesses property rights to the information and intellectual goods they create, usually for a limited period of time. This gives economic incentive for their creation, because it allows people to profit from the information and intellectual goods they create. These economic incentives are expected to stimulate innovation and contribute to the technological progress of countries, which depends on the extent of protection granted to innovators.

Is Education 4.0 the Future Learning in the Digital Revolution

Is Education 4.0 the Future Learning in the Digital Revolution

Industry Aligned Courses
Education 4.0 is the Latest Trend in the Education field.
Broadly speaking, education 4.0 is a school of thought that encourages non-traditional
thinking when it comes to imparting education. Education 4.0 or the future of education
as many call it, will change the teaching-learning methodologies to make the
students future-ready. It is time to witness this change and inculcate it in our lives so that
we can move towards a progressive, intellectual, knowledge-driven and future-ready
Education 4.0 was developed as a response to Industry 4.0 that saw a marked increase in
the use of internet-based technology and communication tools across industries. Many
other industries responded to this change in the way of doing business, resulting in
Healthcare 4.0, Technology 4.0, etc. The educational ecosystem was no different.
Education 4.0 is developed as a response to Industry 4.0, in order to create training,
qualified professionals who are ready for a highly globalized and digital-driven world of
Education 4.0 is a more realistic and practical learning method, which can produce
excellent results for student learning. Maintaining a changing world is important and
Education 4.0 is the method used by educational institutions to ensure this.

“Education 4.0” is my vision for the future of education, which
➢ Responds to the needs of “Industry 4.0” or the Fourth Industrial Revolution, where
man and machine align to enable new possibilities
➢ Harnesses the potential of Digital Technologies, personalized data, open-sourced
content, and the new humanity of this globally-connected, technology-fueled
➢ Establishes a blueprint for the future of learning – lifelong learning – from
childhood schooling, to continuous learning in the workplace, to learning to play a
better role in society.

The objective of Education 4.0:
1. Bridge the gap between Academics & Industry
2. Digital Campus
3. Student Journey
4. Alumni Engagement
5. Compliance & Accreditation
6. Flexible Learning
7. Industry Ready Student
8. Promote Entrepreneurship
9. 100% Employability
PeopleTree Education Society is the First College in Belagavi to introduce Education 4.0
to offer Industry Aligned Courses. The Course is truly designed and delivered the way
industry experts. PeopleTree Education Society has been awarded as the Best Use of
Technology in Teaching-Learning awarded by E-India Awards.
The application of technology for even non-technical courses is our differentiator.
➢ PUC Commerce + Google Suit
➢ BCA + Machine Learning, Data Science, Full Stack Developer (Corporate BCA)
➢ BBA+ Business Analytics, Family Business Management, Hospitality Management
(Corporate BBA)
➢ BCOM + Tally ERP 9, Banking Management, Investor Market (Corporate BCOM)
➢ Institute of Hotel Management + Soft Skills, Personality Development, Industry


In 20 years, students will incorporate so much independence in to their learning process,
that mentoring will become fundamental to student success. Teachers will form a central
point in the jungle of information that our students will be paving their way through.
Though the future of education seems remote, the teacher and educational institution
are vital to academic performance.
Digitization and virtualization in education are motivating, inspiring and potentially broad
challenges for individuals and societies. Smart and intelligent educational tools and
resources should allow individuals to develop more complete expertise, knowledge and
skills and unleash their innovative prospective.
Indeed, many of the changes underway call to mind the evocative words of Irish poet
William Butler Yeats says that, “Education is not to fill the bucket, but to ignite it.”
To be successful in the workplace of the future, people must have appropriate digital and
virtual education. At school, university, or at work – the ever-changing digital landscape is
making IT skills increasingly important and effective.

Study On Significance Of Motivational Techniques On Overall Employees Work Performance and Productivity

Study On Significance Of Motivational Techniques On Overall Employees Work Performance and Productivity

In the modern economy among all the factors of production it is the labor or human resource is regarded as the most important factors of production or productive resource. Because without the support of the human resource it is very difficult to undertake any kind of economic activity in any economy. Various motivational techniques play very important role in getting the best services from the employees in the organisation. That is why all the organizations give more and more importance for motivating their employees by adopting different motivational strategies and techniques. At present scenario whatever may be the condition of the economy discovering the effective ways to motivate the employees is considered as the most important function of any management. In the present competitive era all the organizations whether profit oriented or non – profit oriented needs to give more emphasis for employee motivation techniques. This paper attempts to study the significance of different motivational techniques on the overall employee’s work performance and productivity.


Motivation, Types, Process, Techniques, Significance


This study is based on the secondary data available in internet, news papers, articles, magazines and journals only.


  1. To study about the motivation. 
  2. To understand the process of motivation.
  3. To study the types of motivation.
  4. To analyse the techniques of motivation.
  5. To understand the impact of motivational techniques on employees performance.


Motivation is an important element which encourages the employees to give their best performance in reaching enterprise goals. The term motivation is derived from ‘motive’ which means needs, desires, reasons, wants, purpose or drives existing in human beings. Basically motivation is the process of inducing or stimulating the employees for actions to accomplish certain predetermined organizational goals. It is described as the energy level, creativity, commitment which the employees apply to their jobs in the organization. In other words, it is the practice of inspiring action by understanding the needs of employee by utilizing their moves. It is considered as one of the important managerial function in any kind of organization.


(Vinaya Chaitanya Ganta, 2014) in his paper analyzed the importance of motivation in the workplaces to improve the employee performance and productivity and also on the theories and techniques of motivation in detail. The paper concludes that motivation is very important for all the companies to improve their employees’ performance and productivity of the organisation. The role of managers is very important in motivating the employees at the workplaces. The manager needs to find creative ways to motivate their employees consistently.  

(Prof. Amit Singh, 2017) in his paper discussed about the motivation at modern workplace. The paper concludes that employee motivation is very complicated and sophisticated subject. The managers must face and deal with to obtain organizational success. The managers must recognize the imperativeness or the necessity of employee motivation, its concepts and differences in individual needs. The manager needs to be aware of variety of employee motivational factors and the changes in priorities of these factors in due course of time.

(Dr.Chandrakant Varma, 2017) in his paper discussed the role of motivation in job satisfaction and performance of the employees. The paper concludes that motivation plays a vital role in improving the performance of the employees in the organisation. The organisation HR should induce the workers by providing positive work environment and organizational culture.


The process of motivation plays a very crucial role in any organisation. The managerial process of directing is mainly influenced by the process of motivation as it creates within the mind of an employee the desire or will to work in the direction decided by the manager. 


The basic parts of the process of motivation are as under:

  •  Need Recognition

The first phase of the motivation process is Need Recognition. In this phase the employee identifies his unsatisfied needs which inspire him to actions. These unfulfilled needs encourage the employee to search certain goals by creating pressure on him. This pressure acts like a powerful force for the accomplishment of the set goals which can satisfy the pressure creating need.

  •  Exploring Ways to Fulfill the Need

In this phase different alternative ways are discovered that can satisfy the unsatisfied needs which are recognized in the first phase. The unsatisfied need push the thought processes of the employee that direct him to take up a certain course of action.

  •  Selecting Goals

In this phase the goals are selected on the base of recognized needs and substitute course of actions.

  •  Performance of Employee

In the fourth phase of Motivation Process, the recognized need encourages the employees to perform in a certain way that has already been decided by him. So the employee performs certain course of action for the fulfillment of his unsatisfied need.

  •  Rewards/Punishments as Consequences of Performance

If the end result or the outcome of a particular course of action followed by an employee is in the form of returns, then the employee would be motivated to perform the same level of efforts for obtaining similar returns in future. But if the expected results of the actions of an employee lack the returns, then he would not be willing to repeat his behaviour in the future.

  •  Re-evaluation of Deficiencies of Need

In this phase, if an employee feels fulfillment of his certain unsatisfied need through the returns of a certain line of action, then he again reevaluates the further unsatisfied need because of which the entire process of motivation is repeated again. 


There are mainly two techniques of motivation are there. (1) Financial Motivation, and (2) Non-Financial Motivation.

  •  Financial Motivation:

Financial motivation techniques are based on monetary incentives. They are directly or indirectly attached with money. Money is regarded as the most effective and important source of motivation because money is the medium of exchange and it has the purchasing power ability. Money can be used to satisfy different necessaries, comforts and luxuries. Salary, bonus, leaves with pay, medical and housing facilities, profit sharing, vehicle allowances etc. are considered as some of the examples of financial motivators. The significance of this type of motivation depends on factors like standard of living and overall economic conditions. 

  •  Non-Financial Motivation:

Non-financial incentives are mainly psychological in nature. They give psychological satisfaction or pleasure to the employees. Status, respect, prestige, job enrichment, recognition, safety of job, responsibility, and competition are some of the instances of non financial motivators. These incentives fulfill the socio- psychological related needs of the employees.



Mainly there are two types of Motivation which are as follows:

  •  Positive Motivation

Positive motivation is based on return. In this type of motivation in order to accomplish the organizational goals the employees were offered incentives. The incentives may be in the form of more payment, promotion to the higher position, recognition of work, etc. The employees are offered the incentives and try to improve their performance willingly.

  •  Negative Motivation

Negative motivation is based on fear. Fear causes employees to act in a certain way. If the employees do not perform accordingly then they may be punished with demotions or lay-offs. The fear acts as a push mechanism which forces the employees to give their best towards the accomplishments of the organizational objectives.  



Motivation occupies a prominent place in the whole management process. The management of the organizations can make use of different motivational techniques effectively for encouraging their workers to make positive contribution for achieving organizational objectives. Motivation is required as human beings nature needs some kind of stimulus, encouragement or incentive in order to derive better performance from them. Motivation acts like a technique for improving the performance of employees working at different levels. Motivation of employees is one function which every manager has to perform along with other managerial functions. If the employees are not motivated properly it may leads to job dissatisfaction and decline in the productivity of the employees. By making use of several intrinsic satisfaction & extrinsic factor organization can encourage their employees at work successfully. Motivation is a helpful instrument in the hands of management in stimulating the workforce. Motivation increases the willingness of the workers to work and there by increases the effectiveness of the organization. The success and survival of any organisation depends on its motivation techniques which it adopts in its system.


Motivation is useful in all the phases of the human life. The same is the case with business organizations. Motivation occupies a prominent place in the managerial functions. It is a vital part of management process. Motivated employee is considered to be the precious asset of the organisation which delivers huge value to the organisation in maintaining and strengthening its business activities. Motivation is a helpful tool in the hands of management in exciting the workforce. Motivation increases the efficiency, productivity and willingness of the workers to work. Motivation is  a  very important  aspect  at  any  work place,  if  the employees  are  not  motivated properly  then  there will be  no  job  satisfaction in employees which in turn ultimately leads reduction in their efficiencies and productivity. 

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