In the modern economy among all the factors of production it is the labor or human resource is regarded as the most important factors of production or productive resource. Because without the support of the human resource it is very difficult to undertake any kind of economic activity in any economy. Various motivational techniques play very important role in getting the best services from the employees in the organisation. That is why all the organizations give more and more importance for motivating their employees by adopting different motivational strategies and techniques. At present scenario whatever may be the condition of the economy discovering the effective ways to motivate the employees is considered as the most important function of any management. In the present competitive era all the organizations whether profit oriented or non – profit oriented needs to give more emphasis for employee motivation techniques. This paper attempts to study the significance of different motivational techniques on the overall employee’s work performance and productivity.
Motivation, Types, Process, Techniques, Significance
This study is based on the secondary data available in internet, news papers, articles, magazines and journals only.
- To study about the motivation.
- To understand the process of motivation.
- To study the types of motivation.
- To analyse the techniques of motivation.
- To understand the impact of motivational techniques on employees performance.
Motivation is an important element which encourages the employees to give their best performance in reaching enterprise goals. The term motivation is derived from ‘motive’ which means needs, desires, reasons, wants, purpose or drives existing in human beings. Basically motivation is the process of inducing or stimulating the employees for actions to accomplish certain predetermined organizational goals. It is described as the energy level, creativity, commitment which the employees apply to their jobs in the organization. In other words, it is the practice of inspiring action by understanding the needs of employee by utilizing their moves. It is considered as one of the important managerial function in any kind of organization.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
(Vinaya Chaitanya Ganta, 2014) in his paper analyzed the importance of motivation in the workplaces to improve the employee performance and productivity and also on the theories and techniques of motivation in detail. The paper concludes that motivation is very important for all the companies to improve their employees’ performance and productivity of the organisation. The role of managers is very important in motivating the employees at the workplaces. The manager needs to find creative ways to motivate their employees consistently.
(Prof. Amit Singh, 2017) in his paper discussed about the motivation at modern workplace. The paper concludes that employee motivation is very complicated and sophisticated subject. The managers must face and deal with to obtain organizational success. The managers must recognize the imperativeness or the necessity of employee motivation, its concepts and differences in individual needs. The manager needs to be aware of variety of employee motivational factors and the changes in priorities of these factors in due course of time.
(Dr.Chandrakant Varma, 2017) in his paper discussed the role of motivation in job satisfaction and performance of the employees. The paper concludes that motivation plays a vital role in improving the performance of the employees in the organisation. The organisation HR should induce the workers by providing positive work environment and organizational culture.
The process of motivation plays a very crucial role in any organisation. The managerial process of directing is mainly influenced by the process of motivation as it creates within the mind of an employee the desire or will to work in the direction decided by the manager.
The basic parts of the process of motivation are as under:
- Need Recognition
The first phase of the motivation process is Need Recognition. In this phase the employee identifies his unsatisfied needs which inspire him to actions. These unfulfilled needs encourage the employee to search certain goals by creating pressure on him. This pressure acts like a powerful force for the accomplishment of the set goals which can satisfy the pressure creating need.
- Exploring Ways to Fulfill the Need
In this phase different alternative ways are discovered that can satisfy the unsatisfied needs which are recognized in the first phase. The unsatisfied need push the thought processes of the employee that direct him to take up a certain course of action.
- Selecting Goals
In this phase the goals are selected on the base of recognized needs and substitute course of actions.
- Performance of Employee
In the fourth phase of Motivation Process, the recognized need encourages the employees to perform in a certain way that has already been decided by him. So the employee performs certain course of action for the fulfillment of his unsatisfied need.
- Rewards/Punishments as Consequences of Performance
If the end result or the outcome of a particular course of action followed by an employee is in the form of returns, then the employee would be motivated to perform the same level of efforts for obtaining similar returns in future. But if the expected results of the actions of an employee lack the returns, then he would not be willing to repeat his behaviour in the future.
- Re-evaluation of Deficiencies of Need
In this phase, if an employee feels fulfillment of his certain unsatisfied need through the returns of a certain line of action, then he again reevaluates the further unsatisfied need because of which the entire process of motivation is repeated again.
TECHNIQUE OF MOTIVATION
There are mainly two techniques of motivation are there. (1) Financial Motivation, and (2) Non-Financial Motivation.
- Financial Motivation:
Financial motivation techniques are based on monetary incentives. They are directly or indirectly attached with money. Money is regarded as the most effective and important source of motivation because money is the medium of exchange and it has the purchasing power ability. Money can be used to satisfy different necessaries, comforts and luxuries. Salary, bonus, leaves with pay, medical and housing facilities, profit sharing, vehicle allowances etc. are considered as some of the examples of financial motivators. The significance of this type of motivation depends on factors like standard of living and overall economic conditions.
- Non-Financial Motivation:
Non-financial incentives are mainly psychological in nature. They give psychological satisfaction or pleasure to the employees. Status, respect, prestige, job enrichment, recognition, safety of job, responsibility, and competition are some of the instances of non financial motivators. These incentives fulfill the socio- psychological related needs of the employees.
TYPES OF MOTIVATION
Mainly there are two types of Motivation which are as follows:
- Positive Motivation
Positive motivation is based on return. In this type of motivation in order to accomplish the organizational goals the employees were offered incentives. The incentives may be in the form of more payment, promotion to the higher position, recognition of work, etc. The employees are offered the incentives and try to improve their performance willingly.
- Negative Motivation
Negative motivation is based on fear. Fear causes employees to act in a certain way. If the employees do not perform accordingly then they may be punished with demotions or lay-offs. The fear acts as a push mechanism which forces the employees to give their best towards the accomplishments of the organizational objectives.
SIGNIFICANCE OF MOTIVATION ON EMPLOYEE WORK PERFORMANCE AND PRODUCTIVITY
Motivation occupies a prominent place in the whole management process. The management of the organizations can make use of different motivational techniques effectively for encouraging their workers to make positive contribution for achieving organizational objectives. Motivation is required as human beings nature needs some kind of stimulus, encouragement or incentive in order to derive better performance from them. Motivation acts like a technique for improving the performance of employees working at different levels. Motivation of employees is one function which every manager has to perform along with other managerial functions. If the employees are not motivated properly it may leads to job dissatisfaction and decline in the productivity of the employees. By making use of several intrinsic satisfaction & extrinsic factor organization can encourage their employees at work successfully. Motivation is a helpful instrument in the hands of management in stimulating the workforce. Motivation increases the willingness of the workers to work and there by increases the effectiveness of the organization. The success and survival of any organisation depends on its motivation techniques which it adopts in its system.
Motivation is useful in all the phases of the human life. The same is the case with business organizations. Motivation occupies a prominent place in the managerial functions. It is a vital part of management process. Motivated employee is considered to be the precious asset of the organisation which delivers huge value to the organisation in maintaining and strengthening its business activities. Motivation is a helpful tool in the hands of management in exciting the workforce. Motivation increases the efficiency, productivity and willingness of the workers to work. Motivation is a very important aspect at any work place, if the employees are not motivated properly then there will be no job satisfaction in employees which in turn ultimately leads reduction in their efficiencies and productivity.